Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring (or associated) with a primary disease, in this case we look at those that can be associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In some types other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden. There are over 100 types of arthritis. The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis. People living with hidradenitis suppurativa are more likely to have arthritis than the general population.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Signs and symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss. Nearly one-fifth of patients living with hidradenitis suppurativa may be affected by Crohn’s disease.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. A depressed mood is a normal temporary reaction to life events such as loss of a loved one. It is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. HS is proven to have a high negative impact on a patients' quality of life, as a result, many patients suffer from depression. Treatment of the emotional distress associated with the condition, can be just as important as treating the physical aspects of HS.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In one study, up to 50% of HS patients had metabolic syndrome, which is higher than in the general population.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females. Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include obesity, not enough physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition.
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG)
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory disease often associated with systemic diseases. PG is characterized by the formation of non-infectious, ulcerative skin lesions often observed on the lower limbs. PG and HS have also associated in a variety of studies, as well as independently in case reports. Both PG and HS have also been associated together within both PASH syndrome and PAPASH syndrome. This relationship is perhaps representative of the prolonged systemic inflammation of HS.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type of skin cancer, and is considered the most severe complication of HS, occurring in less than 5% of patients. The chronic inflammation of draining HS lesions may lead to skin changes at the cellular level, eventually resulting in this form of skin cancer. It is important that dermatologists are aware of this risk and biopsy any concerning lesions, as early diagnosis can be lifesaving.